SLA multiple genres strand teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts.

Show students a recording of a multimodal text such as a TV commercial. Then direct students to list and analyze all of the communication modes used in the text as well as how and whether each modality is used effectively.

Further Explanation

This assessment requires students to identify and discuss the various communication modes used in a multimodal text. Students should understand that multimodal text is made up of more than one mode such as images, movement, sound (spoken language and music), and written language.

Students are expected to examine specific components of a text and make determinations about how and/or why those components are used. Students must have a strong understanding of the attributes of a variety of text types. Students should identify and explain the distinguishing characteristics of multimodal text, such as the combination of more than one mode of communication within a single text. This could include a combination of print, sound, still images, or moving images.
Students are expected to have a strong understanding of the particular attributes of text types, including digital text. Digital text is an electronic version of written text that can be accessed using various equipment such as hand-held devices and computers. By its very nature, digital text is often easier to change or customize in response to the needs of diverse learners. Digital text might include features such as embedded video or images, hyperlinks, or the ability to interact with it.


1. Leu, D. J., Zawilinski, L., Castek, J., Banerjee, M., Housand, B. C., Liu, Y., & O'Neil, M. (2007). What is new about the literacies of online reading comprehension? To appear in Rush, S. L., Eakle, J.  Berger, A., ed. Secondary School Literacy: What Research Reveals for Classroom Practice. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Retrieved from

Summary: The authors of this research studied online reading comprehension and the skills that students need in order to become proficient in analyzing multimodal and digital texts. The authors examine the way readers synthesize online texts, and indicate that online readers are actively constructing online texts that they read through their decisions about which sites to visit, among many other choices when reading and researching online.

2. Tainsh, N. (2014). Going south with Sophie Scott: a journey into oral language. Practically Primary, 19(1), 31+. Retrieved from

Summary: The author examines the value of students' classroom discussion for oral language development. As a collaborative activity, students were required to adapt an assigned story into a multimodal format, which encouraged a "wide range of immediate, complex, and unplanned oral language" discussions as students had to "express views, justify ideas, negotiate, evaluate and collaborate to produce their planned oral scripts."

3. Batson, J. (2014). Postmodernity and oral language learning. Practically Primary, 19(1), 39+. Retrieved from

Summary: The article argues for the increasing need for schools to support conversational skills in the digital age and provides ways to build opportunities for social communication in the classroom.