SLA multiple genres strand teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts.

Provide students with a short article to read about a familiar topic. Have them work in pairs to fill out a graphic organizer identifying the author's claim and listing all evidence used by the author to support or refute the claim. Once students have identified the examples, they should differentiate facts from opinions. Last, have students explain how the facts were used by the author and how successful the author was in presenting the argument.

Further Explanation

This assessment requires students to understand that an argumentative text has a claim and be able to identify that claim. Students who are unable to identify the claim will not be able to identify the facts that support it. Students also recognize effective use of facts and whether they are presented in support of or to refute the claim.

a position on a topic or issue developed through appeals to the audience and largely based upon logic, reasoning, and evidence
a text written to demonstrate to an audience that a certain position or idea is valid and that others are not The writer appeals to reason, develops, defends, or debates the topic, connecting a series of statements in an orderly way so they lead to a logical conclusion.
Students should be able to examine specific components of an argumentative text and make determinations about how and/or why the components were used. Students should know that argumentative texts have unique characteristics such as a claim, an intended audience, and the use of facts in support—or refutation—of an argument. Students should also understand that argumentative texts tend to be structured based on the structure of the claim. For instance, if the claim is that one course of action might be better than another, an advantage/disadvantage structure might be used.
the available body of supporting, valid, and relevant details, facts, or information that supports an inference, idea, or proposition
Depending on the topic and audience, authors select specific and compelling evidence to prove the validity of their arguments. Because argumentative writing seeks to prove that the author’s positions are reasonable and sound, the writer will consider what facts and approaches might make the best impression on the reader as he or she plans the piece. Students are expected to describe the ways in which different kinds of information are used in a text and for what purpose they are used.


1. Mirra, N., Honoroff, B., Elgendy, S., & Piertzak G. (2016). Reading and writing with a public purpose: Fostering middle school students' academic and critical community literacies through debate. Journal of Language and Literacy Education. 12(1),  Retrieved from

Summary: This study looks at debate as a way to encourage students to analyze complex texts, increasing their academic reading comprehension skills and critical literacy skills. Middle school students were given writing prompts from which they built evidenced-based argumentative essays. Those essays were further refined through the debate process. Administrators noted the way the debate helped students improve their reading and listening skills.

2. Wagemans, J. H. M. (2011). The assessment of argumentation from expert opinion. Argumentation, 25, 329–330. doi: 10.1007/s10503-011-9225-8

Summary: This article introduces a tool that can be used to format an argument from a position of expertise and experience. The tool allows students to learn how to analyze opposing positions, and develop questions from a critical perspective. The tool fosters reading comprehension and writing skills.