SLA multiple genres strand teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts.

A story's plot provides its organizational structure. Although a story can be told in different ways, the plot of any story generally includes the same basic elements revealed in the a forward-progressing order: rising action (where the suspense/tension/conflict required in all stories appears), the climax (the decisive point at which the reader knows how the conflict will be resolved), the falling action (where the consequences of how the conflict was addressed play out), and the resolution (how the story ends). Once students understand that each of these structural elements plays a role in developing a story, students can begin examining how these parts were constructed and eventually draw conclusions about why those elements were constructed in that manner. This analysis of plot elements can confirm comprehension of the text or establish the need to review these parts more carefully.
the highest point in the plot where the problem/conflict reaches its peak
the element of plot structure that takes place after the climax and begins to resolve the conflict(s) of the story by decreasing formerly established tension before the story moves towards its resolution
a technique that involves a brief interruption in the plot that describes an earlier event or time in order to provide clarity, background, and context about an event currently taking place in the narrative
Sometimes an author chooses to tell a story in a non-linear, or non-chronological, way for effect. For example, in a story set in a middle school, the narrator might include a flashback to an experience the main character had while in elementary school, providing background information that might contribute to the meaning of certain later events in the plot. Students should examine how and why an author might choose to deliver certain points in the plot in a non-linear manner. Students should recognize how plot development affects the reader’s understanding of the story and recognize the difference between linear and non-linear approaches.
a narrative technique in which a plot is portrayed out of chronological order to achieve a particular effect
the element of plot structure that contains the conclusion or final outcome in a story and, in some capacity, resolves all problems and conflicts Not all stories have clear resolutions.
the element of plot structure that develops the conflict through a series of events to build interest, suspense, and tension and that propels a story to the climax


1. Dallacqua, A. L. (2012). Exploring literary devices in graphic novels. Language Arts 89(6), 365–378. Retrieved from

Summary: In this article, the researcher suggests that students can use literary devices as a means to make meaning of text. The article demonstrates how graphic novels can be used to implement multimodal and visual instructional strategies that increase the reading comprehension of students.

2. Nampaktai, P., Kaewsombut, S.A., Wongwayrote, U., & Sameepet, B. (2013). Using story grammar to enhance reading comprehension. International Forum of Teaching and Studies, 9(1), 31–38.

Summary:  In this study, the story grammar technique, which promotes reading ability and thinking skills, is examined to determine whether the reading achievement and analytical skills of middle school students improves when using it. The study included 20 middle school students who were instructed in the use of  the story grammar technique over a set period of time. At the end of the study, it revealed that the story grammar technique did significantly improve the students comprehension and analytical thinking skills.