SLA multiple genres strand teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts.

The following is one example of how to assess proficiency of this student expectation (SE) or a portion of the SE. More examples coming soon.
1 Passage
For Deanna's Eyes Only!


Read both scenes to find out more about the relationship between Deanna and her younger brother Jonathan.

In this drama Jonathan and his older sister Deanna argue abo For Deanna’s Eyes Only!

In this drama Jonathan and his older sister Deanna argue abo

In this drama Jonathan and his older sister Deanna argue abo

[A teenage girl’s bedroom. Jonathan sits on the bed reading a diary. He shakes his head, turns a page, continues reading. Deanna enters and stops short. She stares in disbelief as Jonathan goes on reading, totally oblivious to her presence.]
DEANNA:

[Indignantly.] What do you think you’re doing?

JONATHAN:

[Startled.] Ah! [Slams the diary shut.]

DEANNA:

What are you doing?

JONATHAN:

Nothing!

DEANNA:

You’re reading my diary!

JONATHAN:

[As if he’s confused.] Diary?

DEANNA:

[Pointing.] That! Right there! In your hands!

[Jonathan looks down at his hands and reacts as if he is shocked to see something in them.]
DEANNA:

Oh, cut it out. You know what you were doing.

JONATHAN:

I wasn’t reading it.

DEANNA:

I stood here and watched you. I’ve told you a million times to stay away from my things. Why are you even in my room?

JONATHAN:

Doing you a favor.

DEANNA:

Snooping through my private things? That’s your idea of a favor?

JONATHAN:

I wasn’t snooping. I was cleaning up after you. Mom told me to straighten up the family room, and most of the mess was yours. If this diary is so private, why’d you leave it on the couch?

DEANNA:

So to put my stuff away, you had to read my diary?

JONATHAN:

No. I didn’t even want to read it. But you gave me the impression that you wanted me to, so . . . 

DEANNA:

[In total disbelief.] What? I gave you the impression that I—are you crazy?

JONATHAN:

Well, I figured from what you wrote on the cover . . . 

DEANNA:

I didn’t write “For everybody’s eyes—especially Jonathan’s!” I wrote “FOR DEANNA’S EYES ONLY!” That somehow gave you the impression that I wanted you to read it?

JONATHAN:

Well, if you write something like that on the cover and then leave it lying around, what do you expect?

DEANNA:

I expect people to mind their own business.

JONATHAN:

Oh, that’s like putting a plate of brownies out on a table and then getting mad when someone eats one. If you really wanted to keep your writing secret, you’d bury it in the middle of some half-used-up notebook where nobody but you would even think to look.

DEANNA:

So it’s my fault you violated my privacy?

JONATHAN:

It was kind of like false advertising.

DEANNA:

False advertising?

JONATHAN:

Sure. When you use phrases like “DO NOT OPEN—OR ELSE!” the reader is going to expect something riveting. Not complaints about the school cafeteria.

DEANNA:

What?

JONATHAN:

I’m just saying that with a title like that, the reader’s going to expect some drama—or at the very least, an embarrassing story.

[From offstage Deanna’s mother calls her to leave for volleyball practice.]
DEANNA:

[To Jonathan.] This isn’t over! [Deanna exits, taking the diary with her. Jonathan shrugs and exits after her.]
In this drama Jonathan and his older sister Deanna argue abo

[Family room. Jonathan is watching TV. Deanna enters with the diary and sits on the couch opposite Jonathan.]
DEANNA:

O.K., let me hear it.

JONATHAN:

Hear what?

DEANNA:

[Amazed.] The apology you owe me for reading my diary!

JONATHAN:

Oh that. I was kind of a sneak to read it behind your back.

DEANNA:

Yeah, you were.

JONATHAN:

You want to know the real reason I started reading it?

DEANNA:

O.K., why did you?

JONATHAN:

Well, lately, it’s like I’ve been invisible to you.

DEANNA:

What are you talking about? We do stuff all the time.

JONATHAN:

We used to do stuff all the time. Have you even read your own diary?

DEANNA:

Well, no. I’ve just been writing in it.

JONATHAN:

About your friends. And school. And Jeremy.

DEANNA:

And?

JONATHAN:

And that’s it. I’m not in it anywhere. Take a look. You won’t even find my name.

DEANNA:

[Looks down at the diary in her hands.] I guess I have been busy. But that still doesn’t give you the right to read my private diary.

JONATHAN:

I know. And I am sorry, but I just had to find out if you were mad at me.

DEANNA:

[Sighs.] I’m not mad at you; I’ve just been preoccupied. I’ve been so busy with my first year of high school, trying to keep up and fit in. [Pauses for a moment.] But if you promise not to read my diary anymore, I promise to do something with you at least once a week from now on.

JONATHAN:

O.K., sounds good to me. [Pauses.] But you may want to keep your diary in your room, just in case. [Both exit the stage.]

How is the play’s conflict resolved?

Show Further Explanation
Show Answer
A story's plot provides its organizational structure. Although a story can be told in different ways, the plot of any story generally includes the same basic elements revealed in the a forward-progressing order: rising action (where the suspense/tension/conflict required in all stories appears), the climax (the decisive point at which the reader knows how the conflict will be resolved), the falling action (where the consequences of how the conflict was addressed play out), and the resolution (how the story ends). Once students understand that each of these structural elements plays a role in developing a story, students can begin examining how these parts were constructed and eventually draw conclusions about why those elements were constructed in that manner. This analysis of plot elements can confirm comprehension of the text or establish the need to review these parts more carefully.
the highest point in the plot where the problem/conflict reaches its peak
the element of plot structure that takes place after the climax and begins to resolve the conflict(s) of the story by decreasing formerly established tension before the story moves towards its resolution
a technique that involves a brief interruption in the plot that describes an earlier event or time in order to provide clarity, background, and context about an event currently taking place in the narrative
Sometimes an author chooses to tell a story in a non-linear, or non-chronological, way for effect. For example, in a story set in a middle school, the narrator might include a flashback to an experience the main character had while in elementary school, providing background information that might contribute to the meaning of certain later events in the plot. Students should examine how and why an author might choose to deliver certain points in the plot in a non-linear manner. Students should recognize how plot development affects the reader’s understanding of the story and recognize the difference between linear and non-linear approaches.
a narrative technique in which a plot is portrayed out of chronological order to achieve a particular effect
the element of plot structure that contains the conclusion or final outcome in a story and, in some capacity, resolves all problems and conflicts Not all stories have clear resolutions.
the element of plot structure that develops the conflict through a series of events to build interest, suspense, and tension and that propels a story to the climax

Research

1. Dallacqua, A. L. (2012). Exploring literary devices in graphic novels. Language Arts 89(6), 365–378. Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/Journals/LA/0896-jul2012/LA0896Exploring.pdf

Summary: In this article, the researcher suggests that students can use literary devices as a means to make meaning of text. The article demonstrates how graphic novels can be used to implement multimodal and visual instructional strategies that increase the reading comprehension of students.

2. Nampaktai, P., Kaewsombut, S.A., Wongwayrote, U., & Sameepet, B. (2013). Using story grammar to enhance reading comprehension. International Forum of Teaching and Studies, 9(1), 31–38.

Summary:  In this study, the story grammar technique, which promotes reading ability and thinking skills, is examined to determine whether the reading achievement and analytical skills of middle school students improves when using it. The study included 20 middle school students who were instructed in the use of  the story grammar technique over a set period of time. At the end of the study, it revealed that the story grammar technique did significantly improve the students comprehension and analytical thinking skills.