SLA multiple genres strand teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts.

Themes are universal ideas presented in a text that speak to a common human experience. Themes are often focused on abstract concepts and the author’s thoughts about those concepts. Examples of themes presented in a text include “love can make you brave” or “friendships make difficult times easier to get through.” Students are expected to determine the implied theme that is represented by a character, a group of characters, and/or an event in a literary work.
paraphrased or directly quoted information from a source that supports an inference, thesis, claim, or analysis


1. Nokes, J. D. (2008). The observation/inference chart: improving student's abilities to make inferences while reading nontraditional texts: paintings, movies, historical artifacts, and other nontraditional texts are easier to understand when students are skilled in making inferences. These skills transfer to traditional texts as well. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51(7), 538+. Retrieved from

Summary: The author demonstrates how an observation/inference chart can help inexperienced readers make good inferences. The author explains how to observe and make inferences from those observations, provides examples of modeling making inferences, and gives examples to support both guided practice for students and students' individual practice.

2. Mahzoon-Hagheghi, M., Yebra, R., Johnson, R. D., & Sohn, L. N. (2018). Fostering a greater understanding of science in the classroom through children's literature, Texas Journal of Literacy Education, 6(1), 41–50. Retrieved from

Summary:  The value of using children's literature in the science classroom was studied in this research. The use of literary strategies like questioning for comprehension and inference are transferable skills that are also important in science instruction. The author's provide examples of good choices in children's literature for science instruction and guidance to teachers for a successful implementation.

3. Ilter, I. (2019). The efficacy of context clue strategy instruction on middle grades students' vocabulary development. Research in Middle Level Education, 42(1). Retrieved from

Summary: This study compared the effectiveness of context clue strategy instruction to wide reading practices in terms of their impact on the vocabulary. Sixth grade students were selected for the study; students selected for the experimental group were taught how to use context cues to infer meaning. Direct instruction was used to present the concept to the students. The results suggest that teaching students how to infer meaning from context clue is an instructional strategy that positively impacts the level of student achievement in reading.