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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts.

Before reading a text aloud, have students preview the text to find text features. Based on their observations, have students write their predictions about the text on an index card. Task them with finding support for their predictions. While reading aloud, pause at frequent points in the text for students to review their predictions and decide if they would like to change them. Following the read-aloud, collect the index cards and note whether the students' predictions are supported by information in the text features.

Further Explanation

This example requires the readers to make sense of what they think the author wants to tell them. Students must understand how to formulate hypotheses about the text content.

Each genre has a variety of characteristics, or elements that set it apart from other genres. Students should recognize the characteristics that make a genre unique in order to understand the purpose and content of a text. For example, an informational text usually includes a thesis or controlling idea. It might also include an introduction or a reference section. The author will also use evidence to support the ideas presented in the text. By identifying these various characteristics, students increase their ability to understand this type of text. The same logic applies to all genres of reading.
Reading is an active process that involves interaction between the author and the reader. Authors organize ideas and use them to convey specific messages. Then, readers attempt to make sense of what the author is trying to say. Thus, readers constantly formulate hypotheses about the text at different stages of the reading process. Initially, readers use prior knowledge to make predictions about the text. Readers may also use text features to refine their predictions. As they begin to read the text, readers correct or confirm initial predictions. This is a continuous process.
Text structure refers to how information in a written text is organized. There are different types of text structure. For example, a text may be organized by developing a definition, sharing advantages and disadvantages about a topic, or telling a story chronologically. Each type of text structure serves a particular purpose and presents central ideas and details in specific ways. Recognizing text structures assists students in monitoring their comprehension of the text.
Text features refer to the components of a story or article that are not part of the main body of a text. Some examples of text features are a foreword, preface, and references. Text features help readers focus on important ideas and concepts presented in the text. When students use text features, they make connections within the text, become familiar with the text's organization, and access important background knowledge related to the content.


1. Liang, L. A., & Galda, L. (2009). Responding and comprehending: reading with delight and understanding. The Reading Teacher, 63(4), 330+. Retrieved from

Summary: Using the book Because of Winn-Dixie as their focal text, the authors describe the use of predicting and visualization exercises in the classroom. Students are asked to reflect on a personal situation in which they were new and consider how that felt and what happened. This reflection serves as a springboard for students to make predictions about what will happen in the story's narrative structure. The visualization exercise focuses on getting children to visualize images from poetry, and then illustrate those images. Although the article is targeted for primary grades, it can be scaffolded for older students. For example, students could illustrate a poem through digital art or photography.

2. Risko, V. J., Walker-Dalhouse, D., Bridges, E. S., & Wilson, A. (2011). Drawing on text features for reading comprehension and composing. The Reading Teacher, 64(5), 376–378. DOI:10.1598/RT.64.5.12

Summary: Whether in or out of school, students are introduced to different forms of texts that can be useful in developing comprehension and composing. Texts may include a sequential order of events, descriptive writing based upon history and science, poetic texts, graphic novels, juxtaposition depicted by gestures, visual images, and music. This study suggests that whether the texts are informational or narratives, students, over time, develop a process to connect stories to their personal experience, personal questions, and interests. Research and accommodations for instruction are included.