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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts.

Instruct students to create a three-column chart in which they will record questions generated before, during, and after reading a text. The chart can be used with multiple genres.

Further Explanation

This assessment directs a student to think beyond the text and look for specific context that the student does not understand and use strategies to gain information and deepen understanding. Considering questions before, during, and after reading can lead the student to pay particular attention to the details in the story that establish theme, meaning, setting, and location.

When students ask questions about a text before, during, and after reading, they are thinking beyond the text and applying what they know to what they are about to read or have read. For example, before students read a novel with a title that mentions someone’s name, students might ask themselves, "Who is this person, and how are they important to the story? Will this person be a main character?” This type of question can lead students to pay particular attention to the details in the story that introduce characters and develop the plot.


1. Evans, B. P., & Shively, C. T. (2019). Using the Cornell Note-taking System can help eighth grade students alleviate the impact of interruptions while reading at home. Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education, 10(1). Retrieved from

Summary: As part of the study, students were taught the Cornell note-taking system. As part of this system, students are required to write questions about the main ideas of the notes and answer those questions, along with writing a summary. This study shows that middle school students will be able to make the adjustment from note-taking instruction on paper to computer. Additionally, middle school students can handle using a traditional high school and college aged note-taking strategy like the Cornell system. The study found that the Cornell system can be used to alleviate the impact interruptions have on students’ working memories and comprehension.

2. Barbe-Clevett, T., Hanley, N., & Sullivan, P. (2002). Improving reading comprehension through metacognitive reflection. (Master theses, Saint Xavier University). Retrieved from

Summary: This research reports on a plan for increasing 6th grade students' reflection and comprehension skills. The reflective process was developed through four interrelated activities taught in a specific, scaffolded sequence. Post-intervention data shows an increased in reading skills along with an increased emotional involvement in reading.

3. Joseph, L. M., & Ross, K. M. (2018). Teaching middle school students with learning disabilities to comprehend text using self-questioning. Intervention in School and Clinic, 53(5), 276–282. DOI: 10.1177/1053451217736866

Summary: Self-questioning before, during, and after reading a text is an important process for all students, but especially for middle school students with learning disabilities. In this article, self-questioning is presented as an effective, evidence-based instructional strategy that requires scaffolding. In this article, the reader will learn more about instructional scaffolding that  promotes middle school students with learning disabilities to generate their own questions before, during, and after reading. A discussion of how to monitor the students' progress in reading comprehension is included.