Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.
Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Play games with plastic letters in small-group or one-on-one instruction. This assessment can also be completed in the ABC center during learning-center time. A checklist can be used to keep track of students’ progress.
Examples of Assessments:
Deleting Initial Sounds
- Here is the word pin. Remove the p. What is the new word? (in)
Deleting Final Sounds
- Here is the word cart. Remove the t. What is the new word? (car)
Adding Initial Sounds
- Here is the word at. Add an r to the beginning. What is the new word? (rat)
Adding Final Sounds
- Here is the word ram. Add a p to the end. What is the new word? (ramp)
Changing Initial Sounds
- Here is the word cat. Change the c to an s. What is the new word? (sat)
Changing Final Sounds
- Here is the word dog. Change the g to a t. What is the new word? (dot)
Changing Medial Sounds
- Here is the word hat. Change the a to an o. What is the new word? (hot)
This is different from the PA assessment because the teacher is showing students these words and students are physically removing/adding/changing letters to make new words, not just hearing the sounds and verbally changing words.
It is helpful to model a few examples before assessing students.
Glossary Support for ELA.K.2.B.iii
Related 2009 Student Expectation
This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.
(3) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students are expected to:
International Literacy Association. (2018). Explaining phonics instruction: An educator’s guide [Literacy leadership brief]. Newark, DE: Author. Retrieved from https://www.literacyworldwide.org/docs/default-source/where-we-stand/ila-explaining-phonics-instruction-an-educators-guide.pdf?sfvrsn=1a16a48e_6
Summary: This guide for educator's contains an explanation of phonics and different ways that it is taught.