beginning reading writing teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

Ask students to listen to and blend sounds together to make a word.


You are going to listen to sounds from words and blend the sounds together to make a word. Try this:

  • /r/-/ag/—rag
  • /s/-/un/—sun
  • /st/-/ar/—star
  • /t/-/op/—top
  • /gl/-/ad/—glad
  • /sh/-/op/—shop
  • /b/-/ush/—bush
  • /th/-/is/—this
  • /p/-/ath/—path
  • /cr/-/unch/—crunch
Onsets are the initial phonological unit of a word (e.g., /c/ in cat), while the term rime refers to the letters that follow the onset (e.g., the /at/ in cat).

In kindergarten, students should be able to hear an onset and rime and blend them together to create a word (e.g., combine the sounds /c/ and /at/ and produce the word cat).
Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structures of spoken language, including recognizing differently sized sound parts (e.g., phrases, words, syllables, phonemes) and manipulating those parts (i.e., blend, segment, delete, add, and change).


1. Baker, S. K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from

Summary: Phonological awareness involves being able to recognize and manipulate the sounds within words. This skill is a foundation for understanding the alphabetic principle and reading success. There are several ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers, including: 1) teaching students to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech, 2) teaching students letter-sound relations, and 3) teaching students to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.

2. Yopp, H., & Yopp, R. (2000). Supporting Phonemic Awareness Development in the Classroom. The Reading Teacher, 54(2), 130–143. Retrieved from

Summary: Yopp and Yopp describe phonemic awareness and provide ideas for activities that focus on rhyme, syllable manipulation, onset-rime manipulation, and phoneme manipulation.