Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes.
Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Provide students with a variety of media and text and have them decide whether each is reliable and credible or displays bias. Have students explain their process for deciding what information is reliable, credible, or biased and deciding what information is missing.
Students are expected to review sources to determine if the source is a valid reference. Students in grade eight should be increasingly proficient in determining whether sources are objective, reliable, credible, and free from bias.
Glossary Support for ELA.8.12.H.i
Related 2009 Student Expectation
This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.
(24) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:
1. Kinsey, B., & Comerchero, V. A. (2012). Language in style: Formal language and tone. Communique, 41(1), 37. Retrieved from https://www.nasponline.org/publications/periodicals/communique/issues/volume-41-issue-1
Summary: Kinsey and Comerchero discuss the use of language. Topics include redundancy, word choice, and words that reflect and/or imply assumptions, beliefs, and biases. Words that trigger emotions are included as a part of the discussion. The overall emphasis in this article is the formal writing style and its function. The writing style should be formal. The article provides examples of how word choice and the sequence of words significantly change meaning.
2. Francke, H., Sundin, O., & Limberg, L. (2011). Debating credibility: The shaping of information literacies in upper secondary schools. Journal of Documentation, 67(4), 675–694. doi:10.1108/00220411111145043
Summary: Francke, Sundin, and Limberg examine how secondary students assess the credibility of a resource. The study questions whether students place more credibility on digital resources than print resources. The students in this study were observed and interviewed as they were tasked with searching for information from various sources. Information literacy includes determining the credibility of a resource. The authors include four different approaches that can be used to assess resources for their credibility.
3. Christensen-Branum, L., Strong, A., & Jones, C. O. (2018). Mitigating myside bias in argumentation. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 62(4), 435–445. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.915
Summary: In this study, students learn how to examine sources to determine whether the source is reliable, credible, and/or is biased. The authors outline specific questions that the student should ask when reviewing any source. Does the author provide a counterargument? Does the author use current research to support his or her position? Does the author use primary or secondary resources? Does the author use a negative tone of voice or negative language to talk about the subject? Most importantly, the student should be able to determine whether the author critically reflected the idea and presented the information without bias.
4. White, A. (2016). Using digital think-alouds to build comprehension of online informational texts. The Reading Teacher, 69(4), 421–425. doi:10.1002/trtr.1438
Summary: This article targets the ongoing consumption and creation of information online and in other digital spaces. White suggests that the fluidity and dynamics of digital information represents significant difficulties for students. Students are required to develop information literacy skills, strategies, and attitudes that support ways to critically assess resources for bias, reliability, and credibility.