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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes.

Task students with reading two to three short mentor texts and then reading a faux student writing sample. Ask students to evaluate whether the faux writing sample was correctly and ethically cited or if words and ideas were plagiarized.

Further Explanation

This assessment expects students to identify the difference between plagiarism and paraphrasing. Students must know how to appropriately paraphrase from source material by restating key information in a different way and changing the vocabulary, structure, and sometimes voice of the original source.

A key part of the research process is integrating information obtained from texts into one’s own writing. The ethical use of information requires that students identify the difference between plagiarism (using another author’s words or ideas as one’s own without credit) and paraphrasing (putting information from source material in one’s own words). Paraphrasing means restating key information in a different way and changing the vocabulary, structure, and sometimes voice of the original source.

Related 2009 Student Expectation

This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.

(23)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
(D)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of using valid and reliable sources.


1. Driscoll, D. L., & Braze, A. (2010). Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue. Retrieved from

Summary: This handout is intended to help students become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that can be used to practice these skills.

2. Thomas, E,. &  Sassi, K. (2011). An ethical dilemma: Talking about plagiarism and academic integrity in the digital age. The English Journal, 100(6), 47–53. Retrieved from

Summary: This article addresses the ongoing discussion about plagiarism and academic integrity in the digital age. Fictional scenarios are provided to engage students in the discussion. The article provides guidelines to frame the discussion about academic honesty and scholarship.

3. Goodwin, J. (2017). What's the difference between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? Essay Writing. Retrieved from

Summary: This is an online resource that can be easily used by teachers and students. Magoosh Professional Writing provides online writing strategies and tools.

4. Evering. L. C., & Moorman, G. (2012). Rethinking plagiarism in the digital age. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(1), 35–44. doi:10.1002/JAAL.00100 

Summary: As the digital age continues to evolve, the concept of plagiarism becomes more complex. The purpose of this article is to propose difficult questions centered on plagiarism, its definition, and strategies to prevent plagiarism. This is applicable for all levels. 

5. Pearson, N. G. (2011). Classrooms that discourage plagiarism and welcome technology. English Journal, 100(6), 54–59. Retrieved from

Summary: In this article, students are introduced to plagiarism and explore reasons that students find this as the primary approach to writing. Issues addressed are those such as intellectual property and how to better prepare for academic writing that demonstrates students' knowledge and comprehension of the grade-level expectations. 

6. Hussain, F., Al-Shaibani, G.K.S. & Mahfoodh, O.H.A. (2017). Perceptions of and attitudes toward plagiarism and factors contributing to plagiarism: A review of studies. Journal of Academic Ethics, 15, 167–195. doi:10.1007/s10805-017-9274-1

Summary: Information technology has both pros and cons. In this article, students discuss and define plagiarism. The study reveals the attitudes that contribute to plagiarism and students' perception of plagiarism. The study also includes various forms of plagiarism that are commonly committed. Additional research areas are suggested.