A student expectation is directly related to the knowledge and skills statement, is more specific about how students demonstrate their learning, and always begins with a verb. Student expectations are further broken down into their component parts, often referred to as “breakouts.”
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Choose a topic for which students will compose an informational text. Evaluate each student’s multi-paragraph informational essay for the following elements:
Students should be able to compose informational texts effectively. Students’ writing must have a clear central idea with supporting details, an introduction and a conclusion, and an evident organizational pattern.
1. Klein, P. D., & Rose, M. A. (2010). Teaching argument and explanation to prepare junior students for writing to learn. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(4), 433–461. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.45.4.4
Summary: In this study, Klein and Rose examine how students respond to various writing tasks and assignments. The teachers used the process writing approach, which included creating an outline, drafts, and a final paper. The revision and edit process lends itself to implementing teacher and peer oral and written feedback. The study reveals that there are specific as well as varied means to teach the writing process to students. Students must use prior knowledge and have access to relevant external sources (i.e. internet).
2. White. A. (2016). Using digital think-alouds to build comprehension of online informational texts. The Reading Teacher, 69(4), 421–425. doi:10.1002/trtr.1438
Summary: White suggests that the ongoing consumption and creation of information online and in other digital spaces presents significant complexities for students. Students are required to develop skills, strategies to critically navigate and discuss information accessed online. Most importantly, the article stresses the ability to comprehend the multiple formats of informational text.
3. Scott, J. L. (2012, April). Teaching students to analyze informational text. University of MO-Columbia. Retrieved from https://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/ela-6-courage_and_bravery-instructional_strategy_6.5a-teaching_students_to_analyze%20_informational_text.docx
Summary: This article provides an overview of five styles of informational text and characteristics of each. Multiple strategies are embedded in the article that teachers may find useful in teaching students how to analyze informational text. The process outlined in the article is sequential. Charts and visuals are provided. Although this article provides a strategy to analyze informational text, students gain can also support composing an informational text.