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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student respond to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed.
an organizing structure that presents ideas or information in a logical and rational sequence and is often used in argumentative and informative writing
Students are expected to restate something they have read or heard, retaining the intended meaning of the original while using different words than the original author. Students show their level of understanding and language use when they correctly paraphrase information they read or heard.
Summarizing text is a specific skill that students use when they reduce information to its main ideas and fundamental points. Students may summarize a piece of writing by identifying its components and determining the correct order in which those components appear in the text. For example, students who are summarizing a story read in class should be able to express the main idea conveyed by the author, the details that support it, and the order of events throughout the text.


1. Kletzien, S. B. (2009). Paraphrasing: an effective comprehension strategy. The Reading Teacher, 63(1), 73+. Retrieved from https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A210594945/PROF?u=tea&sid=PROF&xid=69db1b90

Summary: Focusing on individual student's challenges, the authors look at the way students initially approach paraphrasing, and then model for students how to paraphrase by connecting reading with prior knowledge.

2. Fisk, C., & Hurst, B. (2003). Paraphrasing for comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 57(2), 182+. Retrieved from https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A109218181/PROF?u=tea&sid=PROF&xid=5259f22e

Summary: The study acknowledged that most students think paraphrasing is copying from the source and changing a word or two. Noting that this short-circuits students' ability to fully synthesize and understand a text, the authors provide a four-step paraphrasing for comprehension strategy.