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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed.

an organizing structure that presents ideas or information in a logical and rational sequence and is often used in argumentative and informative writing
Students are expected to restate something they have read or heard retaining the intended meaning of the original while using different words than the original author. Students show their level of understanding and language use when they correctly paraphrase the information they were read or heard. As in the case of retelling, paraphrasing can be done either verbally or in writing.
When students are asked to retell something, a story, for instance, they are expected to recall the key ideas and supporting details of the story. Retelling is not providing a verbatim report, but rather, a cognitive effort to identify and describe, either verbally or in writing, the essential information of a text.
Summarizing text is a specific skill that students use when they reduce information to its main ideas and fundamental points. Students may summarize a piece of writing by identifying its components and determining the order in which they appear in the text. For example, students can be required to make a summary of an informational article. In this example, students should be able to express the central idea the article conveys, the details that support it, and the order that follows the presentation of ideas throughout the text.


1. Pecjak, S., & Pirc, T. (2018). Developing summarizing skills in 4th grade students: Intervention programmed effects. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(5), 571–581. doi:10.26822/iejee.2018541306

Summary: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the actual reading competency and metacognitive knowledge about reading. The researchers also desired to learn more about the students' ability to make summaries of expository text. The findings suggest that there is a direct correlation between the student's ability to summarize and their reading comprehension. The results promote a stronger teaching emphasis on summarization.

2. Kletzien, S. B. (2009). Paraphrasing: An effective comprehension strategy. The Reading Teacher, 63(1), 73+. Retrieved from https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A210594945/PROF?u=tea&sid=PROF&xid=69db1b90

Summary: Focusing on individual student's challenges, the authors look at the way students initially approach paraphrasing, and then model for students how to paraphrase by connecting reading with prior knowledge.