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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed.

A teacher may wish to pair SE 3.7.D with SE 3.7.F and assess both SEs at the same time. With SE 3.7.F, students respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate. While reading a text, identify important vocabulary that is new to students. After reading the text, provide students with a graphic organizer to help organize their retelling of the text. Support students in adding the appropriate information to the graphic organizer, including newly acquired vocabulary. Have students share their retelling and/or paraphrasing of the text, including the new vocabulary. Encourage students to use the new vocabulary in various class discussions across content areas.

Further Explanation

This SE requires students to restate something they have read using words that are different from those of the original author. Students show their level of understanding when they are able to paraphrase information, they read using their own words.

an organizing structure that presents ideas or information in a logical and rational sequence and is often used in argumentative and informative writing
Students are expected to restate something they have read or heard, retaining the intended meaning of the original while using different words than the author. Students show their level of comprehension and use of language when they correctly paraphrase information. Paraphrasing can be done either verbally or in writing.
Retelling is not providing a verbatim report, but rather an effort to identify and describe, either verbally or in writing, the essential information of a text. When students are asked to retell a story, for instance, they are expected to recall its key ideas and supporting details.


1. Pecjak, S., & Pirc, T. (2018). Developing summarizing skills in 4th grade students: Intervention programmed effects. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(5), 571–581. doi:10.26822/iejee.2018541306

Summary: The purpose of the study was to determine whether summarizing skills could be developed in 4th grade primary school students. Findings indicate that teachers can increase student's ability to summarize by systematically training them to use summary skills. The study also revealed that if the learning environment does not encourage students to summarize, it will negatively impact student's reading comprehension.

2. Kletzien, S. B. (2009). Paraphrasing: an effective comprehension strategy. The Reading Teacher, 63(1), 73+. Retrieved from https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A210594945/PROF?u=tea&sid=PROF&xid=69db1b90

Summary: Focusing on individual student's challenges, the authors look at the way students initially approach paraphrasing, and then model for students how to paraphrase by connecting reading with prior knowledge.

3. Fisk, C., & Hurst, B. (2003). Paraphrasing for comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 57(2), 182+. Retrieved from https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A109218181/PROF?u=tea&sid=PROF&xid=5259f22e

Summary: The study acknowledges that most students think paraphrasing is copying from the source and changing a word or two. Nothing that this short-circuits students ability to fully synthesize and understand a text, the authors provide a four-step paraphrasing for comprehension strategy.