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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

A teacher may wish to assess this SE following explicit instruction on SE 3.2.A.v, decoding words using knowledge of prefixes. After creating a prefix anchor chart, have students spell different words with the same prefixes as you read them aloud. As students write the words, monitor and observe whether students accurately spell the words with prefixes.

Further Explanation

This assessment requires students to demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge in order to correctly spell words with prefixes. Students should have phonetic knowledge of and experience with examining word parts (prefix + base word) in order to correctly spell words with prefixes. This knowledge is acquired through practice and experience with spelling words with a variety of prefixes.

Both decoding and encoding skills are needed to build a foundation in reading. Decoding is sounding words out according to letter-sound relationship conventions. Encoding is the process of using letter-sound knowledge to write or spell words. Students must understand the various spelling patterns and rules of the English language to correctly construct words in their written products. It is important that students demonstrate this knowledge by applying these rules consistently instead of using invented spelling because they may unknowingly write a real word they did not intend, causing reader confusion.
Students must be able to accurately spell words with common prefixes. Students should understand that a prefix is added before a root or base word to generally show relations in space and time, such as re-, trans-, inter-, sub-, ob-, ad-. Prefixes can also negate and reverse, such as dis-, un-, non-, anti-. Sometimes they intensify the meaning of the root, such as con- and re-.


1. Herrington, M. H., & Marry Macken-Horarik. (2015). Linguistically informed teaching of spelling: Toward a relationship approach. The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 38(2). Retrieved from

Summary: This study examines teachers' knowledge of morphemes and phonemes, and how building greater awareness of word components (a toolkit for teachers) can increase the success of spelling instruction. The authors note that not only teaching children to look closely at the parts of words, but for teachers to look closely and analyze children's morphemic spelling approximations can reveal children's thinking and, thus, lead to targeted instruction.

2. Montelongo, J. A., Hernández, A. C., & Herter, R. J. (2015). Teaching English-Spanish Cognates Using the Texas 2X2 Picture Book Reading Lists. Texas Journal of Literacy Education, Retrieved from

Summary:  The Texas 2x2 Reading List is a list of recommended reading books for children ranging in ages from pre-school to the early primary grades. The books that comprise the Texas 2x2 Reading List are a rich source of vocabulary and contain many English-Spanish cognates. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the different types of cognate vocabulary lessons that may be created to accompany a picture book read-aloud. The lessons are based on the morphological and spelling regularities between English and Spanish cognates and can be used to teach students how to convert words from one language to another.