A student expectation is directly related to the knowledge and skills statement, is more specific about how students demonstrate their learning, and always begins with a verb. Student expectations are further broken down into their component parts, often referred to as “breakouts.”
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Keep a running record to determine student mastery. Running records allow teachers to analyze reading fluency, expression, and comprehension in a comprehensive way. Once the running record is complete, the following rubrics can be used:
Fluency (phrasing & expression)
Level of Text
Note—comprehension is not directly a part of fluency, but to be considered a fluent reader, students must also be able to comprehend what they read. A comprehension component may be included in the fluency assessment.
Kuhn, M. R., Schwaneflugel, P. J., Meisinger, E. B., Levy, B. A., & Raskinski, T. V. (2010). Aligning Theory and Assessment of Reading Fluency: Automaticity, Prosody, and Definitions of Fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230–251. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/20697184
Summary: Over the past decade, fluent reading has come to be seen as a central component of skilled reading and a driving force in the literacy curriculum. However, much of this focus has centered on a relatively narrow definition of reading fluency, one that emphasizes automatic word recognition. This article attempts to expand this understanding by synthesizing several key aspects of research on reading fluency, including theoretical perspectives surrounding automaticity and prosody. It examines four major definitions of reading fluency and their relationship to accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. A proposed definition is presented. Finally, the implications of these definitions for current assessment and instruction are considered along with suggestions for reenvisioning fluency's role within the literacy curriculum.