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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed.

Ask students a question and observe their oral responses.

  • When students respond to a text or a question about the text, the teacher can ask, “How did you decide that?” or “How do you know?” Students need to be able to recall a part of a text that supports their responses.
  • The teacher can ask students to prove it to ensure they understand how to use text evidence to support an appropriate response. For example, after students read an informational text about the sun, the teacher could ask, “What is the sun?” If the child responds, “A star,” the teacher can say, “How do you know?” Students may then respond, “I know because the story tells us right here that the sun is a star.” Students will be able to point to the exact part of the text that answers the question.


The teacher can observe student responses in a whole-group, small-group, or individual setting. Teachers can track student understanding and progress through anecdotal notes or a checklist.

In first grade, text evidence may involve a student pointing to the part of the text that reinforces the student’s response or paraphrasing a part in the story that supports the student’s thinking.
Students are expected to use information taken directly from texts to justify their responses. It is important that students understand that their responses must be based on actual ideas presented in a reading piece and not on their personal opinions about the topic being discussed.