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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

State the following:

You are going to listen to words and tell me the sounds you hear. For example, the sounds you hear in the word dog are /d/-/o/-/g/. Can you tell me the sounds you hear in these words?

  1. flash—/f/-/l/-/a/-/sh/
  2. spread—/s/-p/-/r/-/e/-/d/
  3. trunk—/t/-/r/-/u/-/n/-/k/
  4. pinch—/p/-/i/-/n/-/ch/
  5. glider—/g/-/l/-/i/-/d/-/er/
Consonant blends are two or three consonant phonemes before or after a vowel in a syllable (e.g., initial blends bl, gr, sp, str, tw and final blends nd, sp, mp, rk).
A phoneme is the smallest meaningful unit of sound in speech (e.g., the /s//ă//d/ of sad).
Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the sounds structures of spoken language, including recognizing differently sized sound parts (i.e., phrases, words, syllables, phonemes) and manipulating those parts (i.e., blend, segment, delete, add, and change).
the process of hearing a spoken word and being able to identify/divide its phonemes, or speech sounds, (e.g., dog is /d/ /o/ /g/, house is /h/ /ou/ /se/)
a unit of oral language in which a vowel sound is heard; it may or may not contain a consonant sound


Baker, S. K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from

Summary: Phonological awareness involves being able to recognize and manipulate the sounds within words. This skill is a foundation for understanding the alphabetic principle and reading success. There are several ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers, including: 1) teaching students to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech, 2) teaching students letter-sound relations, and 3) teaching students to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.