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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

Ask students which of the two words on each line begin with the same sound

  • garden, goat, bike (garden, goat)
  • star, speak, stove (star, stove)
  • chicken, three, thumb (three, thumb)
  • plane, plumber, pickle (plane, plumber)
  • candy, apples, cookies (candy, cookies)
Alliteration is the repetition of the same consonant sounds at the beginning of two or more adjacent words (e.g., Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers).
the initial sound of a word (e.g., /c/ in “cat”)
Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the sounds structures of spoken language, including recognizing differently sized sound parts (i.e., phrases, words, syllables, phonemes) and manipulating those parts (i.e., blend, segment, delete, add, and change).


Murray, B. (2012). TELL ME ABOUT FRED'S FAT FOOT AGAIN: Four Tips for Successful PA Lessons. The Reading Teacher, 66(2), 139–144. Retrieved from

Summary: Murray provides four tips for successful phonemic awareness lessons: 1) focus on the individual phoneme; 2) make the phoneme memorable; 3) help children detect the phoneme in spoken words; and 4) apply phonemic awareness to reading.