Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.
Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Provide an alphabet chart for students. Showing only a few letters at a time, say a letter sound and have them point to the letter that represents that sound. Record student responses on a checklist that contains every letter of the alphabet.
Glossary Support for ELA.K.2.B.i
For letters C and G, the hard sound (e.g., the /g/ in gate is hard) is the common sound.
Related 2009 Student Expectation
This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.
(3) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students are expected to:
1. Block, K. & Duke, N. (2015). Preschool through grade 3: Letter names can cause confusion and other things to know about letter-sound relationships. Young Children, 70(1), 84–81. Retrieved from https://www.naeyc.org/resources/pubs/yc/mar2015/letter-sound-relationships
Summary: Block and Duke "present ten essential understandings about English orthography and examples of how this knowledge can help teachers appropriately support preschool and primary grade children's literacy development."
2. What Works Clearinghouse. (n.d.). Foundational skills to support reading for understanding in kindergarten through 3rd grade: practice guide summary. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Science. Retrieved from https://buildingrti.utexas.org/sites/default/files/booklets/wwc_foundationalreading_070516.pdf
Summary: This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills
3. Baker, S. K., Santiago, R. T., Masser, J., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). The Alphabetic Principle: From Phonological Awareness to Reading Words. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from https://improvingliteracy.org/brief/alphabetic-principle-phonological-awareness-reading-words
Summary: The alphabetic principle is a critical skill that involves connecting letters with their sounds to read and write. Learning and applying the alphabetic principle takes time and is difficult for most children. Explicit phonics instruction and extensive practice are important when teaching children to learn the alphabetic principle.
4. Baker, S. K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from https://improvingliteracy.org/brief/how-we-learn-read-critical-role-phonological-awareness
Summary: Phonological awareness involves being able to recognize and manipulate the sounds within words. This skill is a foundation for understanding the alphabetic principle and reading success. There are several ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers, including: 1) teaching students to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech, 2) teaching students letter-sound relations, and 3) teaching students to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.