Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.
Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Have students complete a quick check. They must be able to remove initial syllables from words, remove final syllables from words, add syllables to words, and change syllables in words.
Removing Initial Syllable:
- If I say football and take away foot, what do I have left? (ball)
- If I say peanut and take away pea, what do I have left? (nut)
- If I say mitten and take away mit, what do I have left? (ten)
Removing Final Syllable:
- If I say toothbrush and take away brush, what do I have left? (tooth)
- If I say hippo and take away po, what do I have left? (hip)
- If I say pencil and take away cil, what do I have left? (pen)
Adding a Syllable:
- If I say loud and add er, what is my word? (louder)
- If I say talk and add ing, what is my word? (talking)
- If I say slow and add ly, what is my word? (slowly)
Changing a Syllable:
- If I say sunset and I change set to shine, what is my new word? (sunshine)
- If I say bedroom and I change room to time, what is my new word? (bedtime)
- If I say jellyfish and I change jelly to star, what is my new word? (starfish)
Glossary Support for ELA.K.2.A.ix
Baker, S. K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from https://improvingliteracy.org/brief/how-we-learn-read-critical-role-phonological-awareness
Summary: Phonological awareness involves being able to recognize and manipulate the sounds within words. This skill is a foundation for understanding the alphabetic principle and reading success. There are several ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers, including: 1) teaching students to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech, 2) teaching students letter-sound relations, and 3) teaching students to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.